This review published in August 2022 summarised the health-related effects of FODMAPs on the pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Spanning almost 30 years of research studies, this review concluded that a diet rich in FODMAPs may be associated with an increased abundance of short chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria and increased insulin secretion through complex hormonal pathways. Fructans and GOS are known for their prebiotic potential, which may play a role in the management of T2DM through anti-inflammatory processes and blood glucose level reduction.
Further research in the form of systematic observational and intervention studies is needed to confirm these theoretical benefits of a high FODMAP diet in the development and/or management of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, future studies should assess and confirm if the FODMAP content is solely responsible for the physiological changes seen among subjects with T2DM (as opposed to other food components, such as the fibre content, macronutrient profile or glycaemic index).