The symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) might be confusing, especially since they can overlap with other digestive problems. Living with IBS means navigating through these troublesome symptoms that affect your daily life. Understanding and managing these symptoms effectively is essential to improving your digestive health and overall well-being.

If you’re suffering from digestive problems or are interested in understanding more about IBS, we’re here to provide helpful information. In this article, we’ll discuss the symptoms associated with this chronic condition. By expanding your knowledge and gaining access to the right tools, you can enjoy a more comfortable and fulfilling life that isn’t restricted by irritable bowel syndrome.

Overview of IBS Symptoms

Research reveals a connection to nerve hypersensitivity within the gastrointestinal tract’s wall. These distinct nerves, separate from those in the spinal cord and brain, play a significant role in IBS symptoms. For some individuals, IBS may arise from the intricate communication between gut nerves and the brain or how the brain processes the information received.

Most people experience their first IBS symptoms before age 40, with many recalling the onset of symptoms during childhood or young adulthood. A familial link has also been observed, as numerous IBS patients report having a family member with similar symptoms. In some instances, individuals may experience symptoms of IBS following a serious intestinal infection, which is referred to as post-infectious IBS.

It is essential to differentiate IBS from a similarly named disease called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While both conditions impact the gastrointestinal system, they are distinct entities with separate underlying causes and treatment approaches. Understanding these differences is vital for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of symptoms.

Causes of IBS

Understanding what causes irritable bowel syndrome is crucial, yet these remain somewhat elusive. One known trigger is the onset of IBS following a bacterial or parasitic intestinal infection.

Stress, too, plays a significant role in the development of IBS symptoms. The connection between the intestine and the brain involves a complex network of hormonal and neural signals. Communication signals between the brain and intestines may increase during stress, causing heightened sensitivity and contractions that affect bowel function.

The occurrence of IBS isn’t confined to a specific age group, though it’s more frequently diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. Interestingly, females appear to suffer from symptoms of IBS twice as often as males.

Diagnosis of IBS

Healthcare providers often determine irritable bowel syndrome based on reported symptoms. A lactose-free diet might be recommended temporarily to determine how to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, aid in the diagnosis, and identify lactose intolerance.

Various tests are also conducted to exclude other medical conditions. These include blood tests to check for celiac disease or anemia, stool analyses for hidden blood, infections, parasites, or fecal calprotectin—a marker for intestinal inflammation.

It’s crucial to distinguish IBS from conditions with similar symptoms, such as celiac disease, colon cancer (especially if accompanied by weight loss, bloody stools, or abnormal tests), and inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.

Risk Factors for IBS

While you can manage IBS with diet and lifestyle adjustments, its impact on your daily life can be profound and sometimes stressful. The condition affects physical health and can have a significant emotional and psychological toll. IBS patients may experience an array of related conditions, including depression, anxiety, migraines, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Recognising the emotional and psychological challenges of living with IBS is crucial. It’s essential to know that you can receive specialised psychological support if you’re feeling down, anxious, or upset due to IBS.

What Are the Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

Low FODMAP Diet for IBS

Stomach cramps and abdominal pain

Abdominal pain is the most prevalent and defining symptom of irritable bowel syndrome. In the normal functioning of your digestive system, your gut and brain work in harmony through hormones, nerves, and signals released by the beneficial bacteria residing in your gut.

However, this delicate balance is disrupted in IBS, leading to distorted and uncoordinated signals. Consequently, painful tension builds up in the muscles of the digestive tract, resulting in abdominal pain and stomach cramps.

This discomfort primarily manifests in the lower abdomen or the entire abdominal region, with a lesser likelihood of being confined to the upper abdomen alone. Notably, the pain subsides after a bowel movement.

To alleviate this distressing symptom, certain dietary modifications, such as adopting a low-FODMAP diet, have shown promising results in improving pain and other associated symptoms. Additionally, treatments like bowel relaxants, such as peppermint oil, cognitive behaviour therapy, and hypnotherapy, have effectively managed abdominal pain for IBS patients.


The altered digestion in IBS contributes to increased gas production within the gut, leading to the uncomfortable sensation of bloating.

Many individuals identify bloating as one of the most persistent and bothersome among the various symptoms of IBS. Females and those with constipation-predominant IBS or mixed IBS types were more likely to experience these symptoms.

Again, individuals may effectively reduce bloating by implementing dietary adjustments and adopting a low-FODMAP diet.

Changes in bowel movements

For individuals with constipation-predominant IBS, slow-moving stool in the intestine tends to become dehydrated as the intestine absorbs water. This results in the formation of hard stool, which can exacerbate symptoms of constipation.

On the other hand, individuals experiencing diarrhea-predominant IBS encounter prompt movement of stool through the intestine, leaving little time for water absorption. This leads to the characteristic loose stools associated with diarrhea.

Additionally, IBS can cause mucus to accumulate in the stool, a symptom not typically observed in other causes of constipation.

While experiencing changes in bowel movements is a common aspect of IBS, it is essential to remain vigilant about any concerning signs. Blood in the stool, for instance, should not be taken lightly, as it may indicate another potentially serious medical condition.

If you notice blood in your stool, regardless of its appearance (red or very dark with a tarry consistency), you must seek prompt medical attention.

Food intolerance

Approximately 80% of individuals with IBS report specific food triggers that lead to symptoms. These intolerances aren’t allergies and don’t cause measurable digestion differences. Common triggers include gas-producing foods such as those containing FODMAPs, and gluten.

Other symptoms of IBS include mucus in stool, urgency, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. Beyond digestive issues, IBS can cause migraine headaches, sleep disturbances, anxiety or depression, and is linked to fibromyalgia and chronic pelvic pain. Individual experiences with IBS vary, with some tolerating symptoms well and others facing challenges in their daily lives, including work.

How to Manage the Symptoms of IBS

As there is no known cure for IBS, effective symptom management becomes the primary goal, especially considering the wide range of symptom severity, from mild discomfort to complete debilitation.

Among the key areas of symptom management, dietary changes play a crucial role. Up to 90% of IBS sufferers actively avoid specific foods to minimise flare-ups and foster a better quality of life. Though navigating dietary choices may initially feel daunting, identifying the ingredients that trigger discomfort is paramount for long-term IBS management.

Triggers of IBS

Various dietary factors can exacerbate the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. For IBS constipation, foods like refined bread and cereals, processed snacks, coffee, carbonated beverages, alcohol, high-protein diets, and certain dairy products—particularly cheese—can worsen symptoms.

In contrast, IBS-related diarrhoea can be triggered by certain foods, such as insoluble fibre found in fruits and vegetables, as well as chocolate, alcohol, caffeine, fructose, or sorbitol. Other dietary triggers include large meals, fried and fatty foods, and dairy products, especially for those with lactose intolerance or gluten sensitivity.

As mentioned, stress and anxiety are also key triggers for IBS. These can arise from various sources such as work, commuting, home issues, financial concerns, or a general feeling of losing control. Additionally, certain medications can lead to IBS flare-ups, including antibiotics, some antidepressants, and medicines containing sorbitol, like cough syrup.

Lifestyle factors can contribute as well. Eating while working or driving, consuming food too quickly, chewing gum, or inadequate exercise can all aggravate IBS symptoms.

Treatment of IBS

IBS management primarily focuses on alleviating symptoms. Combining lifestyle modifications with medical interventions may be effective. Regular exercise and healthier sleep habits can alleviate anxiety and improve bowel symptoms.

Dietary adjustments play a crucial role, although the variability of IBS symptoms from person to person means there’s no universal diet recommendation. Helpful changes can include reducing the intake of stimulants like caffeine, eating smaller meals, and adjusting fibre intake; increasing fibre may aid constipation or diarrhoea, though it might exacerbate bloating.

Consulting with a healthcare provider before using over-the-counter medicines is essential. The effectiveness of medication can vary widely among individuals. In some cases, psychological therapy or medications for anxiety and depression can also be beneficial, addressing the broader impact of IBS on mental health.

Low FODMAP Diet for IBS

A low FODMAP diet therapy has shown promising results for those who do not find relief from basic symptom-relief measures. FODMAPs (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Di-saccharides, Mono-saccharides, and Polyols) are certain carbohydrates that some individuals may have difficulty absorbing, thus exacerbating IBS symptoms.

Individuals with IBS may experience significant relief from their symptoms by reducing these specific carbohydrates in their diet.

By incorporating low-FODMAP foods into your diet, you can control your IBS symptoms. In addition, implementing the low FODMAP diet should be done under the guidance of a registered FODMAP dietitian to ensure its proper execution and effectiveness.

Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for IBS

Part of managing irritable bowel syndrome is paying attention to your diet. While there’s no one- size-fits-all diet or medicine for IBS, certain dietary practices can significantly alleviate symptoms. Some of them are discussed below.

General dietary tips for IBS

  • Do: Prepare homemade meals with fresh ingredients, maintain a food diary to identify and avoid trigger foods, explore relaxation techniques, and experiment with probiotics for at least a month.
  • Don’t: Skip or delay meals, eat hastily, consume excessive fatty, spicy, or processed foods, eat more than three portions of fresh fruit daily, and drink over three cups of tea or coffee daily.

Alleviating bloating, cramps, and gas

  • Regular consumption of oats, like porridge, can be beneficial.
  • Avoid hard-to-digest foods like cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, beans, onions, and dried fruit.
  • Stay away from products containing sorbitol.

Managing diarrhoea

  • Reduce intake of high-fibre foods, such as whole grains (brown bread, brown rice), nuts, and seeds.
  • Avoid sorbitol-containing products.
  • Seek advice from a pharmacist for medications that can offer relief.

Relieving constipation

  • Ensure adequate water intake to soften stools.
  • Increase soluble fibre intake with foods like oats, pulses, carrots, peeled potatoes, and linseeds (whole or ground).
  • Discuss with a pharmacist about suitable laxatives.

Adhering to these dietary guidelines can make a noticeable difference in managing IBS symptoms, contributing to a better quality of life.

When to See a Doctor

Seeking medical advice is essential when experiencing symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Your doctor must evaluate these symptoms to rule out other conditions before confirming an IBS diagnosis.

If you’re already diagnosed with IBS, it’s also crucial to consult your doctor under certain circumstances:

  • If your symptoms are worrying, particularly if they are severe or persistent
  • If there’s any presence of blood in your stools
  • In cases of unexplained or unintentional weight loss
  • If you experience a fever or severe diarrhoea


Understanding and managing the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome is crucial for improving your digestive health and overall well-being.
Remember, you don’t have to face IBS alone. Seeking guidance from healthcare professionals and exploring supportive resources can provide valuable insights and assistance on your journey to a more comfortable and fulfilling life.

Learn More About Managing the Symptoms of IBS by Understanding the Low FODMAP Diet

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Discover our comprehensive online course, IBS Management: The Low FODMAP Diet, offered by the GI Institute. Presented by esteemed gastroenterologists and dietitians, this self-paced course provides invaluable insights. It typically takes 10-12 hours to complete, offering 12.25 CEUs.

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